Category Archives: Animal Studies

Rafati 2017: Using vitamin E to prevent the impairment in behavioral test, cell loss and dendrite changes in medial prefrontal cortex induced by tartrazine in rats

This gallery contains 2 photos.

Acta Histochemica. 2017 March; 119(2): 172-180 The authors used a rat model to answer the following questions: Does exposure to tartrazine (Yellow 5)  influence the rats’ memory and learning? Does the tartrazine exposure have any effects on the volume of … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Bataineh 2006: Impact of 12-week ingestion of sodium fluoride on aggression, sexual behavior, and fertility in adult male rats

This gallery contains 2 photos.

Fluoride, 39 (4), 293-301. Giving adult male rats 100 ppm and 300 ppm (parts per million) of sodium fluoride in their drinking water for 12 weeks resulted in less testosterone, fewer (and weaker) sperm, less aggressive behavior, and less successful … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Sasaki 2002: The comet assay with 8 mouse organs: Results with 39 currently used food additives

This gallery contains 3 photos.

Mutation Research. 2002 Aug 26; 519(1-2): 103-19. Sasaki et al, in Japan, tested 39 common food additives — dyes, color fixatives, preservatives, antioxidants, fungicides, and sweeteners.   They gave each additive separately by mouth to groups of four male mice, and … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Li 2016: Pigeons home faster through polluted air

This gallery contains 1 photo.

Scientific Reports, 2016 Jan 5;6:18989. Air pollution is good for something …. if you are a pigeon racer.  It seems that in northern China, homing pigeons fly home lots faster through polluted air. The authors say it isn’t yet clear … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Umezawa 2012: Effect of fetal exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticle on brain development – brain region information

This gallery contains 2 photos.

The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 37, No. 6, 1247-1252. 2012 By studying the brains of mice whose mothers were exposed to titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles during pregnancy, the researchers determined changes in gene expression affecting several parts of the … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Kubo-Irie 2016: The transfer of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from the host plant to butterfly larvae through a food chain

This gallery contains 3 photos.

Scientific Reports, 2016 March 31;6:23819 The purpose of this study was to better  understand how the widely used titanium dioxide may impact the environment.  The researchers used swallowtail butterfly larvae which were hatched on plants growing in water containing titanium … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Mansouri 2016: Histopathological effects following short-term coexposure of Cyprinus carpio to nanoparticles of TiO2 and CuO

This gallery contains 2 photos.

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. (2016) 188:575 This Swiss study looks at the effect of two kinds of nanoparticles, separately and combined.  Both copper oxide (CuO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) ultrafine particles (nanoparticles or NP) are widely used in many things … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Jovanovic 2016: Food web effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in an outdoor freshwater mesocosm experiment.

This gallery contains 2 photos.

Nanotoxicology. 2016 Sep;10(7):902-12. In this study, 25 µg/L and 250 µg/L of the food color additive titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were added to outdoor mesocosms* placed in a lake.  The control mesocosm was not treated with any TiO2. * A … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Ze 2014: Neurotoxicity and gene-expressed profile in brain-injured mice caused by exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles

This gallery contains 3 photos.

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 2014 Feb; 102(2): 470-8. Titanium dioxide is a naturally occurring white powder approved by the FDA.  It is used as a white coloring in many products we use every day such as toothpaste, … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

El-Wahab 2013: Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats

This gallery contains 1 photo.

Toxicology and Industrial Health, 2013.  March; 29(2): 224-32.  doi: 10.1177/0748233711433935 The researchers wanted to evaluate the toxic effect of some synthetic colorants and/or flavors on body organs and metabolism in rats.   They used 10 groups of 10 male albino rats … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Ishihara 1979: Experimental investigation on the pathogenesis of tartrazine-induced asthma

This gallery contains 2 photos.

Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1979. Nov; 129(3): 303-9. In this study on guinea pigs, the researchers showed that the dye Yellow 5 potentiates asthmatic reactions to other broncho-constrictors. In other words, the dye may not cause an asthma attack … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Goldenring 1980: Effects of continuous gastric infusion of food dyes on developing rat pups.

This gallery contains 2 photos.

Life Sciences. 1980 Nov 17;27(20):1897-904. In this study, some rats were treated with 6-OHDA and some were treated with placebo.  In each of these groups, some were given food dyes and some were given placebo, resulting in 4 groups of … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Saxena 2015: Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

This gallery contains 3 photos.

Toxicology International. 2015 Jan-Apr; 22(1): 152–157. This study was done to see if the common food colors tartrazine (Yellow 5), metanil yellow (a non-permitted color often used illegally) and sunset yellow (Yellow 6) may play a part in liver disease. … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Ceyhan 2013: Effects of maternally exposed coloring food additives on receptor expressions related to learning and memory in rats.

This gallery contains 3 photos.

Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2013 Jun;56:145-8. In a study of rats, the authors found that exposing them to food dyes before birth changed the expression of certain receptors when they grew up.  The particular receptors (NMDAR and nAChR) are involved … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Doguc 2013: Effects of maternally exposed colouring food additives on cognitive performance in rats

This gallery contains 1 photo.

Toxicology and Industrial Health, 2013. Aug; 29(7): 616-23. In this study, Doguc gave pregnant rats the ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) amounts of the following food dyes by mouth, continuing to do so after the babies were born so that the … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Husarova 2013: Monosodium glutamate toxic effects and their implications for human intake: A review

This gallery contains 1 photo.

JMED Research, Vol. 2013 (2013) This is a review of the studies about MSG and its influence on different systems in humans.  Effects of injected MSG into rats included neuron damage, and prefrontal cerebral cortex changes, but such tests cannot … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Kamel 2011: The Potential Health Hazard of Tartrazine and Levels of Hyperactivity, Anxiety-Like Symptoms, Depression and Anti-social behaviour in Rats

This gallery contains 2 photos.

Journal of American Science, 2011; 7 (6) This paper from Egypt describes a double-blind controlled study on rats to determine the behavioral effects of long-term exposure to various doses of tartrazine (E102, Yellow 5) provided in the drinking water of … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Reyes 1996: Effect of organic synthetic food colours on mitochondrial respiration

This gallery contains 2 photos.

Food Additives and Contaminants, 1996. Jan;13(1):5-11 In this lab study, 11 artificial food dyes – not all of them used in the US — were tested to determine their effect on the mitochondria of rat liver and kidney. NOTE:  Mitochondria … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Goldenring 1982: Sulfanilic acid: behavioral change related to azo food dyes in developing rats

This gallery contains 1 photo.

Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 1982. Jan-Feb;4(1): 43-9. Goldenring studied the effects of giving sulfanilic acid to rat pups.  He chose this chemical because it is formed when azo food dyes are digested.  He gave the sulfanilic acid to normal rat … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Lafferman 1979: Erythrosin B inhibits dopamine transport in rat caudate synaptosomes.

This gallery contains 2 photos.

Science. 1979. July 27; 205 (4404): 410-2. Lafferman found that erythrosin B [Red 3] given to rats prevents the uptake of dopamine (the “feel good” neurotransmitter) by nerve cells in the brain called the caudate synaptosomes.  This is consistent with … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment

Shaywitz 1979: Effects of chronic administration of food colorings on activity levels and cognitive performance in developing rat pups treated with 6-hydroxydopamine

This gallery contains 2 photos.

Neurobehavioral Toxicology, 1979.  Spring;1(1):41-7.  (Today called Neurotoxicology and Teratology) In a study on rat pups, the highest dose of food dyes caused the greatest activity.  Even after a half hour, the pups only calmed down by 7.25% — while the … Continue reading

More Galleries | Leave a comment