Category Archives: Review, Editorial or Speech

O’Nions 2014: Pathological demand avoidance: Exploring the behavioural profile

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Autism. 2014,  July; 18(5): 538-44. This is the first report comparing the profiles of children labelled PDA to those in  other groups with behavioral overlap. For example, children with conduct problems are strongly motivated by rewards; for PDA, however, rewards … Continue reading

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Gillberg 2014: Commentary: PDA – public display of affection or pathological demand avoidance? – reflections on O’Nions et al. (2014)

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Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2014 July; 55(7):769-70 Beginning with a comment on “PDA” as sometimes used to mean “Public Display of Affection,” Gillberg says that in his own 40 years of clinical experience, PDA/EDA is not at all … Continue reading

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Hutcheon 2016: Detectable Risks in Studies of the Fetal Benefits of Maternal Influenza Vaccination

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American Journal of Epidemiology, 2016 Aug 1; 184(3):227-32 Giving pregnant women the flu shot is expected not only to prevent the flu in both mothers and newborns, but also to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth.  According to … Continue reading

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Ly 2017: Elimination diets’ efficacy and mechanisms in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder.

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European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.  2017.  Feb 11.    doi: 10.1007/s00787-017-0959-1 In her review of the research, Dr. Ly discusses the use of elimination diets for ADHD and autism from the point of view of the interaction of the metabolic, immune, … Continue reading

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Saunders 2016: Reconsidering dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in bipolar disorder: A translational picture

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The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2016 Oct;77(10): e1342-e1347 Drugs used for bipolar disorder often work by down-regulating the brain metabolism of a long-chain omega-6 (or n-6) essential fatty acid called arichidonic acid (AA).  The shorter-chain omega-6 (or n-6) essential fatty … Continue reading

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Schapowal 1995: Phenomenology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of aspirin-sensitive rhinosinusitis.

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Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Belgica. 1995;49(3): 235-50. In this review of aspirin-sensitive rhinosinusitis, it is described as a non-allergic, non-infectious perennial eosinophilic rhinitis starting in middle age and rarely seen in children. It may also been seen in atopic patients who have … Continue reading

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Arnold 1999: Treatment alternatives for Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

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Journal of Attention Disorders, Vol. 3(1): 30-48 (1999) This review of “alternative” treatments was undertaken for the National Institute of Health (NIH) 1998 Consensus Development Conference on ADHD.  23 such treatments were identified.  Some were considered effective or possibly effective … Continue reading

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Nigg 2012: Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

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Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2012 Jan; 51(1): 86–97.e8. This meta-analysis of 24 published studies on food colors, plus 10 more on dietary restriction, concluded that a restriction diet (e.g., the Feingold diet or an … Continue reading

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Cormier 2007: Diet and child behavior problems: Fact or fiction?

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Pediatric Nursing. 2007 Mar-Apr; 33(2): 138-43. This review is intended to help nurses support parents who want to try various therapeutic diets such as the Feingold diet, oligoantigenic (few foods) diet, or gluten-free, casein-free diet for their children.  The nurses … Continue reading

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Breakey 1997: The role of diet and behaviour in childhood

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Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 1997 June; 33(3): 190-4. The author summarizes and discusses the research from the 1970s up until the 1990s.  She emphasizes that studies often only can deal with a single item but in actuality there … Continue reading

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Schnoll 2003: Nutrition in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A neglected but important aspect

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Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 2003 March; 28(1): 63-75. In this paper, Schnoll reviews the research on food additives, refined sugars, food allergies, and fatty acid metabolism as it relates to ADHD. QUOTE:  “Although clinicians and researchers alike acknowledge the complex … Continue reading

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Konikowska 2012: The influence of components of diet on the symptoms of ADHD in children

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Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny. 2012;63(2): 127-34 In this review of ADHD treatments, Konikowska describes hyperactivity as a genetic trait connected to abnormal brain maturation, likely related to less activity by neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine.  While stimulant medications effectively increase the … Continue reading

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Vally 2000: Alcoholic drinks: important triggers for asthma

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Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2000 Mar;105(3):462-7 In this study, a questionnaire was filled out by 366 adult asthma patients.  Over 33% of them said that their asthma had been triggered by alcohol at least twice, with wine reported … Continue reading

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Edlow 2016: Maternal Obesity and Neurodevelopmental and Psychiatric Disorders in Offspring

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Prenatal Diagnosis. 2016, Sep 29. doi: 10.1002/pd.4932 Edlow reviews the current animal and human research showing a connection between maternal (and sometimes paternal) obesity and high fat diets on  neuro-developmental and psychiatric disorders in the offspring. These disorders include cognitive … Continue reading

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Lanphear 2015: The impact of toxins on the developing brain.

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Annual Review of Public Health,  2015 Mar 18;36:211-30. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on the population impact of toxins on the developing brain and describe implications for public health. QUOTE:  “The blood–brain barrier of the … Continue reading

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Abrishami 1977: Aspirin intolerance–a review

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Annals of Allergy 1977 Jul;39(1):28-37 This is an early review of the combination of asthma, nasal pathology and intolerance to aspirin as a “unique syndrome”  with a tendency for diabetes as well as a prolongation of bleeding time. Abrishami mentions … Continue reading

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Liu 2005: Biosocial bases of aggressive and violent behavior — implications for nursing studies

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International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2005 Feb;42(2):229-41 In this review, it is noted that deficiencies in cholesterol, tryptophan (an amino acid), protein, iron, or zinc are each connected to an increase in aggression as well as cognitive and behavior problems.  … Continue reading

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Horrocks 1999: Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

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Pharmacological Research, 1999.  Sep;40 (3):211-25 DHA  and EPA are long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.  This review lists the many benefits of these as well as the effects of a deficiency in both infants and adults. QUOTE:  “… deficiencies of DHA are … Continue reading

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Vojdani 2015: Immune reactivity to food coloring

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Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 2015. 21 Suppl 1:52-62. During the past 50 years, the amount of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500%.  At the same time, there has been an alarming rise in behavioral problems … Continue reading

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Malakar 2014: Minding the greens – Role of dietary salicylates in common behavioural health conditions

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Acta Alimentaria, 43(2), 344-359. QUOTE:  “Given that it is now well-known that autistic patients tend to be PST-deficient, causal link between a low-salicylate diet and the mitigation of symptom-severity seems a rather plausible hypothesis.” QUOTE:  “It is quite apparent from … Continue reading

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Stevenson 2014: Research review: the role of diet in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder–an appraisal of the evidence on efficacy and recommendations on the design of future studies.

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Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 2014 May;55(5):416-27. The author compares 3 kinds of studies for treatment of ADHD – restricted elimination diets (RED), artificial food colour elimination (AFCE), and essential fatty acid (e.g. fish oil) supplements (SFFA).  He concludes … Continue reading

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Verlaet 2014: Nutrition, immunological mechanisms and dietary immunomodulation in ADHD.

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European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2014 Jul;23(7):519-29. Verlaet discusses the common causes of GI problems, asthma, eczema, ear infections, and ADHD – involving both genes, immunity, and inflammation.  An immune imbalance can be related to food provoking ADHD-like behavior.  Food … Continue reading

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Gray 2013: Salicylate elimination diets in children: Is food restriction supported by the evidence?

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The Medical Journal of Australia, 2013. Jun 17; 198(11): 600-2. Gray was treating patients who had tried the low-salicylate diet (called the FAILSAFE diet) used in Australia, which is more restrictive than the Feingold diet, eliminating both more of the … Continue reading

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Husarova 2013: Monosodium glutamate toxic effects and their implications for human intake: A review

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JMED Research, Vol. 2013 (2013) This is a review of the studies about MSG and its influence on different systems in humans.  Effects of injected MSG into rats included neuron damage, and prefrontal cerebral cortex changes, but such tests cannot … Continue reading

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Sonuga-Barke 2013: Nonpharmacological Interventions for ADHD: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials of Dietary and Psychological Treatments

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American Journal of Psychiatry, 2013.  March. 170(3): 275-89. This paper is a review of dietary and psychological treatments for ADHD. QUOTE (Conclusion):  “Free fatty acid supplementation and artificial food color exclusions appear to have beneficial effects on ADHD symptoms, although … Continue reading

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Stevens 2013: Mechanisms of behavioral, atopic, and other reactions to artificial food colors in children

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Nutrition Review, 2013 May;71(5):268-81. Stevens reviews the research on mechanisms by which food dyes and common foods may cause behavioral changes in children with and without ADHD.  The three potential mechanisms are toxicological, antinutritional, and hypersensitivity. Suggestions for future studies … Continue reading

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Whiteley 2013: Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions

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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2013 Jan 4;6:344. This is a review of evidence suggesting that a gluten-free diet, a casein-free diet (or both) are helpful for people on the autism spectrum. QUOTE:   “Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published … Continue reading

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Arnold 2012: Artificial food colors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms: Conclusions to dye for

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Neurotherapeutics. 2012 Jul;9(3):599-609. Arnold reviews the history of the effects of artificial food colors (AFC) on ADHD and the testimony to the 2011 FDA Food Advisory Committee. Arnold discusses possible biological mechanisms such as the effects of food dyes on … Continue reading

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Millichap 2012: The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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Pediatrics, 2012 Feb;129(2): 330-7. Millichap says his article is a comprehensive overview of the role of diet for treatment of children with ADHD “when pharmacotherapy has proven unsatisfactory or unacceptable.”  Unfortunately, he falls short of his promise.  He quotes almost … Continue reading

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Weiss 2012: Synthetic Food Colors and Neurobehavioral Hazards: The View from Environmental Health Research

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Environmental Health Perspectives, 2012 Jan;120(1):1-5. Dr. Weiss examines the basis of the FDA’s position on food dyes, the decision of the Food Advisory Committee, and the reasons that this is an environmental health issue He points out that they limited … Continue reading

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Hoekstra 2011: Is there potential for the treatment of children with ADHD beyond psychostimulants?

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European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011. 20 (9), 431-2. Concerned about the enormous increase in use of psychostimulant drugs such as Ritalin, the authors of this editorial discuss the research supporting the use of other options.  In particular, they find … Continue reading

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Stevens 2011: Dietary sensitivities and ADHD symptoms: thirty-five years of research

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Clinical Pediatrics (Phila), 2011. Apr; 50(4): 279-93. In their review of the literature, Stevens et al conclude that the evidence indicates that a diet free of food dyes is appropriate for “children who have not responded satisfactorily to conventional treatment, … Continue reading

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Curtis 2008 Nutritional and environmental approaches to preventing and treating autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review

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Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2008.  Jan-Feb; 14(1): 79-85. This is a review of literature available in 2008. The authors say many of the studies link exposure to toxins such as mercury, lead, and pesticides, as well as prenatal … Continue reading

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Prescrire International 2009: Artificial food colouring and hyperactivity symptoms in children

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Prescrire International, 2009. Oct; 18(103): 215 (no author listed) In a health assessment of artificial food dyes, Prescrire International, a non-profit organization providing information and continuing education for healthcare professionals, considers the hypothesis that artificial food dyes worsen hyperactivity symptoms … Continue reading

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Schab 2004: Do artificial food colors promote hyperactivity in children with hyperactive syndromes? A meta-analysis of double-blind placebo-controlled trials

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Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 2004 Dec;25(6):423-34. Searching 10 databases for double-blind placebo-controlled trials on the effects of artificial food dyes, Schab and Trinh found 15 that met their criteria. QUOTE:  “Our meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that AFCs (artificial … Continue reading

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Schoenthaler 1991: Applied Nutrition and Behavior

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Journal of Applied Nutrition, November 1, 1991, Vol. 43. In a review of diet changes made in 813 prisons in California, implementation of “nutrient dense diets” resulted in “significantly improved conduct, intelligence, and/or academic performance” Full Text || Get Password

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Menzies 1984: Disturbed children: the role of food and chemical sensitivities

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Nutrition and Health. 1984; 3(1-2): 39-54. Menzies reviews the existing literature and presents a number of case studies of children with idiosyncratic responses to foods and additives. QUOTE:  “Perhaps not enough attention has been paid to the role of biological … Continue reading

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Mattes 1983: The Feingold diet: a current reappraisal

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Journal of Learning Disabilities, 1983.  Jun-Jul;16(6):319-23. Mattes gives his opinion that improvement on the Feingold diet is  “based on anecdotal evidence;” he claims that the studies show the diet “is probably not effective, except perhaps in a very small percentage … Continue reading

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Feingold 1982: The role of diet in behaviour

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Ecology of Disease, 1982. 1(2-3):153-65 QUOTE:   The increase in behavioural disorders accompanied by a persistent drop in scholastic performance coupled with the continuing rise in the prevalence of delinquency is undoubtedly one of the most important expressions of the disruption … Continue reading

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Mattes 1981: Effects of artificial food colorings in children with hyperactive symptoms. A critical review and results of a controlled study

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Archives of General Psychiatry. 1981. June; 38(6): 714-8 Mattes claimed he tried to maximize the behavioral effects of artificial food dyes by (1) studying only children already on the Feingold diet,  (2) trying to exclude placebo responders, and (3) administering … Continue reading

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