Category Archives: 2011-2015

Book: Waging War on the Autistic Child

The Arizona 5 and the Legacy of Baron von Münchausen, by Andrew J. Wakefield (2012) PROLOGUE “What is the loss of job, career, professional license, honors, colleagues, and country against that of a child’s voice? How do the very public … Continue reading

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O’Nions 2014: Pathological demand avoidance: Exploring the behavioural profile

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Autism. 2014,  July; 18(5): 538-44. This is the first report comparing the profiles of children labelled PDA to those in  other groups with behavioral overlap. For example, children with conduct problems are strongly motivated by rewards; for PDA, however, rewards … Continue reading

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Reilly 2014: Pathological Demand Avoidance in a population-based cohort of children with epilepsy: Four case studies

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Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2014 Dec; 35(12): 3236-44 Children with epilepsy often have other neurological problems such as autism and ADHD.  This paper is a detailed report on four children with epilepsy as ell as symptoms of PDA (Pathological Demand … Continue reading

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Gillberg 2014: Commentary: PDA – public display of affection or pathological demand avoidance? – reflections on O’Nions et al. (2014)

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Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2014 July; 55(7):769-70 Beginning with a comment on “PDA” as sometimes used to mean “Public Display of Affection,” Gillberg says that in his own 40 years of clinical experience, PDA/EDA is not at all … Continue reading

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Gillberg 2015: Extreme (“pathological”) demand avoidance in autism: a general population study in the Faroe Islands

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European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2015. August; 24(8): 979-84. The Faroe Islands are a cluster of 18 rocky, volcanic islands which form a self-governing archipelago, part of the Kingdom of Denmark.  They are located in the open seas betwen the … Continue reading

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O’Nions 2014: Development of the ‘Extreme Demand Avoidance Questionnaire’ (EDA-Q): preliminary observations on a trait measure for Pathological Demand Avoidance.

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Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 55:7 (2014), pp 758–768 This paper is about the development and validation of the ‘Extreme Demand Avoidance Questionnaire’  (EDA-Q), to aid in diagnosis of PDA (Pathological Demand Avoidance) traits. PDA (or EDA) is a … Continue reading

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Malin 2015: Exposure to fluoridated water and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States: an ecological association

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Environmental Health, Feb 27;14:17. doi: 10.1186/s12940-015-0003-1. The authors comment that while environmental factors known to increase the risk of ADHD include exposure to manganese, poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), nicotine, mercury, arsenic, food additives, food coloring, pesticides and lead, almost no attention … Continue reading

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Hormann 2014: Holding Thermal Receipt Paper and Eating Food after Using Hand Sanitizer Results in High Serum Bioactive and Urine Total Levels of Bisphenol A (BPA)

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PLoS One. 2014 Oct 22;9(10): e110509. If you must handle thermal receipts, don’t use sanitizers or hand lotion – both often contain chemicals that will encourage the BPA to slide right through your skin. In the experiment described in this … Continue reading

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Lioutas 2015: “I saw Santa drinking soda!” Advertising and children’s food preferences

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Child Care Health & Development. 2015 May;41 (3):424-33 This study examines the “mechanisms by which food advertising prompts children’s consumer behavior.” The children respond to advertising by (1) an increase in expectations and purchase motivation, (2) happiness upon acquiring the … Continue reading

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Sommer 2015: Treatment of aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease with a low salicylate diet: a pilot crossover study.

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Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery. 2015 Jan; 152(1): 42-47. Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is comprised of aspirin/acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA) sensitivity, bronchial asthma, and nasal polyposis.  Treatment may include steroids, surgery, and/or aspirin desensitization. In this study of 10 patients, … Continue reading

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Zou 2011: Tourette syndrome and excitatory substances: Is there a connection?

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Childs Nervous System. 2011 May;27(5): 793-802 This is one of the first studies to investigate the relationship between dietary components and Tourette syndrome (TS). Using the laboratory that tested the Olympic Games  contestants for illegal stimulant drugs, the researchers tested … Continue reading

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Ghanizadeh 2015: The effect of dietary education on ADHD, a randomized controlled clinical trial

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Annals of General Psychiatry (2015) March 1; 14:12 This was a study on children with ADHD who were already receiving Ritalin therapy, to see if improving their diet in general might make a difference.  The children were divided into two … Continue reading

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Dixit 2013: All India survey for analyses of colors in sweets and savories: Exposure risk in Indian population

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Journal of Food Science. 2013 April; 78(4): T642-7 This is the first national study on food additive use in India, collecting data on “sweets and savories.” Their dye extraction and identification technique (using pure wool strands) is described, as is … Continue reading

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Nigg 2012: Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

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Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2012 Jan; 51(1): 86–97.e8. This meta-analysis of 24 published studies on food colors, plus 10 more on dietary restriction, concluded that a restriction diet (e.g., the Feingold diet or an … Continue reading

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Konikowska 2012: The influence of components of diet on the symptoms of ADHD in children

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Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny. 2012;63(2): 127-34 In this review of ADHD treatments, Konikowska describes hyperactivity as a genetic trait connected to abnormal brain maturation, likely related to less activity by neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine.  While stimulant medications effectively increase the … Continue reading

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Umezawa 2012: Effect of fetal exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticle on brain development – brain region information

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The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, Vol. 37, No. 6, 1247-1252. 2012 By studying the brains of mice whose mothers were exposed to titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles during pregnancy, the researchers determined changes in gene expression affecting several parts of the … Continue reading

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Omura 2015: Early Detection of Autism (ASD) by a Non-invasive Quick Measurement of Markedly Reduced Acetylcholine & DHEA and Increased β-Amyloid (1-42), Asbestos (Chrysotile), Titanium Dioxide, Al, Hg & often Coexisting Virus Infections (CMV, HPV 16 and 18), Bacterial Infections etc. in the Brain and Corresponding Safe Individualized Effective Treatment

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Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research., Vol. 40,  pp. 157-187, 2015 Omura reports on a non-invasive method developed to detect neurotransmitters, bacteria, metals, virus, and other abnormal molecules using an electromagnetic field resonance phenomenon through the pupil of the eye. The researchers … Continue reading

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Ze 2014: Neurotoxicity and gene-expressed profile in brain-injured mice caused by exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles

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Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. 2014 Feb; 102(2): 470-8. Titanium dioxide is a naturally occurring white powder approved by the FDA.  It is used as a white coloring in many products we use every day such as toothpaste, … Continue reading

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El-Wahab 2013: Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats

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Toxicology and Industrial Health, 2013.  March; 29(2): 224-32.  doi: 10.1177/0748233711433935 The researchers wanted to evaluate the toxic effect of some synthetic colorants and/or flavors on body organs and metabolism in rats.   They used 10 groups of 10 male albino rats … Continue reading

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Saxena 2015: Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

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Toxicology International. 2015 Jan-Apr; 22(1): 152–157. This study was done to see if the common food colors tartrazine (Yellow 5), metanil yellow (a non-permitted color often used illegally) and sunset yellow (Yellow 6) may play a part in liver disease. … Continue reading

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Lanphear 2015: The impact of toxins on the developing brain.

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Annual Review of Public Health,  2015 Mar 18;36:211-30. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on the population impact of toxins on the developing brain and describe implications for public health. QUOTE:  “The blood–brain barrier of the … Continue reading

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Dodson 2012: Endocrine disruptors and asthma-associated chemicals in consumer products

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Environmental Health Perspectives, 2012. Jul;120(7): 935-43. In this study, the authors measured chemicals in cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products, to determine what they contain in the way of asthma-causing chemicals and endocrine disruptors (chemicals that mess up … Continue reading

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Tomova 2015: Gastrointestinal microbiota in children with autism in Slovakia

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Physiology & Behavior 2015, Jan. 138:179-87. This is a small study showing that autism is both genetic and environmental.  The more “bad” microbes in the gut, the worse the autism, and probiotics helped. QUOTE:  “This pilot study suggests the role … Continue reading

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Vojdani 2015: Immune reactivity to food coloring

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Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 2015. 21 Suppl 1:52-62. During the past 50 years, the amount of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500%.  At the same time, there has been an alarming rise in behavioral problems … Continue reading

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Malakar 2014: Minding the greens – Role of dietary salicylates in common behavioural health conditions

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Acta Alimentaria, 43(2), 344-359. QUOTE:  “Given that it is now well-known that autistic patients tend to be PST-deficient, causal link between a low-salicylate diet and the mitigation of symptom-severity seems a rather plausible hypothesis.” QUOTE:  “It is quite apparent from … Continue reading

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Stevens 2014: Amounts of artificial food dyes and added sugars in foods and sweets commonly consumed by children

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Clinical Pediatrics, 2014. Feb;53(2):133-40 Numerous foods and candies were purchased from local stores and processed to measure the amount of food dyes actually in them. Several comprehensive tables provide the details, but below is a sample: Some of the snack … Continue reading

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Stevens 2014: Amounts of artificial food colors in commonly consumed beverages and potential behavioral implications for consumption in children

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Clinical Pediatrics, 2014. Feb; 53(2): 133-40. The amount of food dyes certified over the years has increased more than 5-fold since 1950 (12 mg/capita/day) to 2012 (68 mg/capita/day).  Studies that used 50 mg or more of food dyes showed a … Continue reading

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Stevenson 2014: Research review: the role of diet in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder–an appraisal of the evidence on efficacy and recommendations on the design of future studies.

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Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 2014 May;55(5):416-27. The author compares 3 kinds of studies for treatment of ADHD – restricted elimination diets (RED), artificial food colour elimination (AFCE), and essential fatty acid (e.g. fish oil) supplements (SFFA).  He concludes … Continue reading

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Verlaet 2014: Nutrition, immunological mechanisms and dietary immunomodulation in ADHD.

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European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2014 Jul;23(7):519-29. Verlaet discusses the common causes of GI problems, asthma, eczema, ear infections, and ADHD – involving both genes, immunity, and inflammation.  An immune imbalance can be related to food provoking ADHD-like behavior.  Food … Continue reading

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Bell 2013: A comparison of daily consumption of artificial dye-containing foods by American children and adults

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Eastern Michigan University Master’s Theses. 2013. Bell counted number of exposures to food dye, not the actual amounts of dye,  consumed, and she found that children are exposed to food dyes at least twice as much as adults.  She also … Continue reading

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Ceyhan 2013: Effects of maternally exposed coloring food additives on receptor expressions related to learning and memory in rats.

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Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2013 Jun;56:145-8. In a study of rats, the authors found that exposing them to food dyes before birth changed the expression of certain receptors when they grew up.  The particular receptors (NMDAR and nAChR) are involved … Continue reading

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Doguc 2013: Effects of maternally exposed colouring food additives on cognitive performance in rats

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Toxicology and Industrial Health, 2013. Aug; 29(7): 616-23. In this study, Doguc gave pregnant rats the ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) amounts of the following food dyes by mouth, continuing to do so after the babies were born so that the … Continue reading

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Gray 2013: Salicylate elimination diets in children: Is food restriction supported by the evidence?

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The Medical Journal of Australia, 2013. Jun 17; 198(11): 600-2. Gray was treating patients who had tried the low-salicylate diet (called the FAILSAFE diet) used in Australia, which is more restrictive than the Feingold diet, eliminating both more of the … Continue reading

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Husarova 2013: Monosodium glutamate toxic effects and their implications for human intake: A review

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JMED Research, Vol. 2013 (2013) This is a review of the studies about MSG and its influence on different systems in humans.  Effects of injected MSG into rats included neuron damage, and prefrontal cerebral cortex changes, but such tests cannot … Continue reading

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Sonuga-Barke 2013: Nonpharmacological Interventions for ADHD: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials of Dietary and Psychological Treatments

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American Journal of Psychiatry, 2013.  March. 170(3): 275-89. This paper is a review of dietary and psychological treatments for ADHD. QUOTE (Conclusion):  “Free fatty acid supplementation and artificial food color exclusions appear to have beneficial effects on ADHD symptoms, although … Continue reading

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Stevens 2013: Mechanisms of behavioral, atopic, and other reactions to artificial food colors in children

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Nutrition Review, 2013 May;71(5):268-81. Stevens reviews the research on mechanisms by which food dyes and common foods may cause behavioral changes in children with and without ADHD.  The three potential mechanisms are toxicological, antinutritional, and hypersensitivity. Suggestions for future studies … Continue reading

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Whiteley 2013: Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions

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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2013 Jan 4;6:344. This is a review of evidence suggesting that a gluten-free diet, a casein-free diet (or both) are helpful for people on the autism spectrum. QUOTE:   “Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published … Continue reading

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Arnold 2012: Artificial food colors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms: Conclusions to dye for

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Neurotherapeutics. 2012 Jul;9(3):599-609. Arnold reviews the history of the effects of artificial food colors (AFC) on ADHD and the testimony to the 2011 FDA Food Advisory Committee. Arnold discusses possible biological mechanisms such as the effects of food dyes on … Continue reading

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Millichap 2012: The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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Pediatrics, 2012 Feb;129(2): 330-7. Millichap says his article is a comprehensive overview of the role of diet for treatment of children with ADHD “when pharmacotherapy has proven unsatisfactory or unacceptable.”  Unfortunately, he falls short of his promise.  He quotes almost … Continue reading

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Saab 2012: The effect of diet supplementation on children with ADHD

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Lebanese American University, Masters Thesis 2012 In a project for her Masters Degree in Education, Linda Saab performed a case study on a 9 year old boy in Beirut who was diagnosed with ADHD.   Although he was observed for 5 … Continue reading

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