Category Archives: Year of Publication

Vally 2000: Alcoholic drinks: important triggers for asthma

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Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2000 Mar;105(3):462-7 In this study, a questionnaire was filled out by 366 adult asthma patients.  Over 33% of them said that their asthma had been triggered by alcohol at least twice, with wine reported … Continue reading

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Wuthrich 1981: Acetylsalicylic acid and food additive intolerance in urticaria, bronchial asthma and rhinopathy

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Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift (Swiss medical weekly), 1981. Sep 26; 111(39): 1445-50 Wuthrich wrote that adverse reactions to aspirin, additives such as tartrazine (Yellow 5) and the preservative benzoate are seen all over the world.  It is described as an intolerance … Continue reading

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Spector 1979: Aspirin and concomitant idiosyncrasies in adult asthmatic patients

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Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, 1979 Dec;64(6 Pt 1):500-6 In this study, a positive response was defined as a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second  (FEV1) for up to 4 hours.  The researchers tested several hundred … Continue reading

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Ishihara 1979: Experimental investigation on the pathogenesis of tartrazine-induced asthma

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Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 1979. Nov; 129(3): 303-9. In this study on guinea pigs, the researchers showed that the dye Yellow 5 potentiates asthmatic reactions to other broncho-constrictors. In other words, the dye may not cause an asthma attack … Continue reading

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Edlow 2016: Maternal Obesity and Neurodevelopmental and Psychiatric Disorders in Offspring

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Prenatal Diagnosis. 2016, Sep 29. doi: 10.1002/pd.4932 Edlow reviews the current animal and human research showing a connection between maternal (and sometimes paternal) obesity and high fat diets on  neuro-developmental and psychiatric disorders in the offspring. These disorders include cognitive … Continue reading

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Goldenring 1980: Effects of continuous gastric infusion of food dyes on developing rat pups.

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Life Sciences. 1980 Nov 17;27(20):1897-904. In this study, some rats were treated with 6-OHDA and some were treated with placebo.  In each of these groups, some were given food dyes and some were given placebo, resulting in 4 groups of … Continue reading

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Saxena 2015: Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

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Toxicology International. 2015 Jan-Apr; 22(1): 152–157. This study was done to see if the common food colors tartrazine (Yellow 5), metanil yellow (a non-permitted color often used illegally) and sunset yellow (Yellow 6) may play a part in liver disease. … Continue reading

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Fasmer 2010: Comorbidity of Asthma With ADHD

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Journal of Attention Disorders.  2010 Jun 23. In Norway, the Prescription Database contains information on all prescription drugs dispensed since 2001, which creates a unique opportunity to address the issue of whether the diagnoses of ADHD and asthma are associated … Continue reading

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Corder 1995: Aspirin, salicylate, sulfite and tartrazine induced bronchoconstriction. Safe doses and case definition in epidemiological studies

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Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 1995. Oct;48(10):1269-75 Corder estimated safe doses to use for epidemiological studies by studying reactions of patients in an allergy clinic. He said that reactions to the four compounds listed in the table are common, and may … Continue reading

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Healy 2008: Control of salicylate intolerance with fish oils

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British Journal of Dermatology, 2008. Dec;159(6):1368-9. This is a case report of several patients with disabling salicylate-induced intolerance including severe urticaria, asthma, and anaphylactic reactions. After dietary supplementation with 10 g daily of fish oils rich in omega-3 for 6-8 … Continue reading

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Andrews 2004: Impact of racemic albuterol compared to levalbuterol on objective measures of hyperactivity and inattentiveness in children with asthma

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The Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology, 113(2), Suppl, S32 Both Levalbuterol (LEV) and racemic Albuterol (RAC) are bronchodilator medications used for asthma, but parents complain that children are more restless and hyperactive after taking LEV.    In this study, attention … Continue reading

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Yu 2016: Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Adversely Associated with Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2016 July 4;13(7). pii: E678. In this study of Taiwanese children, a strong correlation was found between amount of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumed per day and ADHD.  A dose-response effect was observed, … Continue reading

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Lanphear 2015: The impact of toxins on the developing brain.

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Annual Review of Public Health,  2015 Mar 18;36:211-30. The objective of this review is to provide an overview on the population impact of toxins on the developing brain and describe implications for public health. QUOTE:  “The blood–brain barrier of the … Continue reading

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Neuman 1978: The danger of “yellow dyes” (tartrazine) to allergic subjects

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Clinical Allergy. 1978 Jan;8(1): 65-8. In an Israeli hospital, Neuman et al tested the effect of 50 mg of tartrazine (Yellow 5) on 97 patients with a variety of allergic disorders and 25 with non-allergic rhinitis.  First, all patients were … Continue reading

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Wang 2016: Sucralose promotes food intake through NPY and a neuronal fasting response

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Cell Metabolism, 2016 July 12;24(1): 75-90 Both flies and mice have the same pathways which are triggered by sucralose (Splenda) to make the body think it is starving and increase the desire to eat.   Wang explains that a sweet taste … Continue reading

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New FDA Data Show High Levels of Dyes in Brand-name Foods

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Little Debbie Swiss Rolls Use Yellow, Red, and Blue Dyes to Make ‘Chocolate’ Cake Reprinted from article published by the Center for Science in the Public Interest, July 18, 2016 Little Debbie Swiss Rolls have a combined 32 milligrams of … Continue reading

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Dodson 2012: Endocrine disruptors and asthma-associated chemicals in consumer products

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Environmental Health Perspectives, 2012. Jul;120(7): 935-43. In this study, the authors measured chemicals in cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products, to determine what they contain in the way of asthma-causing chemicals and endocrine disruptors (chemicals that mess up … Continue reading

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Ceserani 1978: Tartrazine and prostaglandin-system

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Prostaglandins and Medicine, 1978 Dec;1(6):499-505 The authors discuss the bronchoconstriction caused by tartrazine (Yellow 5) in people who are aspirin-sensitive, as well as its effect on the prostaglandin system of guinea pig lungs.  They found that the dye inhibits formation … Continue reading

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Lockey 1977: Hypersensitivity to tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No. 5) and other dyes and additives present in foods and pharmaceutical products

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Annals of Allergy, 1977. Mar;38(3): 206-10 In this paper, Lockey describes the battery of tests he had developed to determine sensitivity to food additives and analgesics, which he says can make symptoms of asthma and chronic urticaria (hives) worse. MedLine … Continue reading

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Abrishami 1977: Aspirin intolerance–a review

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Annals of Allergy 1977 Jul;39(1):28-37 This is an early review of the combination of asthma, nasal pathology and intolerance to aspirin as a “unique syndrome”  with a tendency for diabetes as well as a prolongation of bleeding time. Abrishami mentions … Continue reading

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Stenius 1976: Hypersensitivity to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and tartrazine in patients with asthma

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Clinical Allergy. 1976 Mar;6(2): 119-29. In this study, Stenius and Lemola used far less of tartrazine (Yellow 5) and aspirin than what a person may normally ingest, and had to overcome chronic medication as well (see NOTES below). Nevertheless, they … Continue reading

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Settipane 1975: Aspirin intolerance. III. Subtypes, familial occurence, and cross-reactivity with tartarazine

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Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1975. Sep;56(3): 215-21 The authors presented their evidence that in aspirin intolerance there are two mechanisms – one causing bronchospasm (breathing difficulty such as in asthma) and the other causing urticaria (hives). They also … Continue reading

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Liu 2005: Biosocial bases of aggressive and violent behavior — implications for nursing studies

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International Journal of Nursing Studies, 2005 Feb;42(2):229-41 In this review, it is noted that deficiencies in cholesterol, tryptophan (an amino acid), protein, iron, or zinc are each connected to an increase in aggression as well as cognitive and behavior problems.  … Continue reading

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Gesch 2002: Influence of supplementary vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids on the antisocial behaviour of young adult prisoners

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British Journal of Psychiatry (2002), 181,22–28 This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study of 231 young adult prisoners.   They were given nutritional supplements used in England, and their disciplinary offenses before and after were compared. QUOTE:  “Conclusions: Antisocial behaviour … Continue reading

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Horrocks 1999: Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

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Pharmacological Research, 1999.  Sep;40 (3):211-25 DHA  and EPA are long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.  This review lists the many benefits of these as well as the effects of a deficiency in both infants and adults. QUOTE:  “… deficiencies of DHA are … Continue reading

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Dykman 1998: Effect of nutritional supplements on attentional-deficit hyperactivity disorder

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Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 1998,  Jan-Mar;33(1):49-60 This was a small study of 17 children, some on medications and some not.  During the study, some of those on medication had their meds reduced by half and some did not.  For … Continue reading

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Tomova 2015: Gastrointestinal microbiota in children with autism in Slovakia

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Physiology & Behavior 2015, Jan. 138:179-87. This is a small study showing that autism is both genetic and environmental.  The more “bad” microbes in the gut, the worse the autism, and probiotics helped. QUOTE:  “This pilot study suggests the role … Continue reading

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Vojdani 2015: Immune reactivity to food coloring

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Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 2015. 21 Suppl 1:52-62. During the past 50 years, the amount of synthetic dye used in foods has increased by 500%.  At the same time, there has been an alarming rise in behavioral problems … Continue reading

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Batada 2016: Prevalence of Artificial Food Colors in Grocery Store Products Marketed to Children

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Clinical Pediatrics, 2016 Oct; 55(12): 1113-1119. In this study, 810 products commonly marketed to children and found in a local grocery store were evaluated.  43.2% of them contained artificial food colors (AFC), mostly Red 40, Blue 1, Yellow 5, and … Continue reading

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Malakar 2014: Minding the greens – Role of dietary salicylates in common behavioural health conditions

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Acta Alimentaria, 43(2), 344-359. QUOTE:  “Given that it is now well-known that autistic patients tend to be PST-deficient, causal link between a low-salicylate diet and the mitigation of symptom-severity seems a rather plausible hypothesis.” QUOTE:  “It is quite apparent from … Continue reading

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Stevens 2015: Amounts of artificial food dyes and added sugars in foods and sweets commonly consumed by children

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Clinical Pediatrics, 2015 Apr;54(4):309-21, e-published April 24, 2014 Numerous foods and candies were purchased from local stores and processed to measure the amount of food dyes actually in them. Several comprehensive tables provide the details, but below is a sample: Some … Continue reading

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Stevens 2014: Amounts of artificial food colors in commonly consumed beverages and potential behavioral implications for consumption in children

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Clinical Pediatrics, 2014. Feb; 53(2): 133-40. The amount of food dyes certified over the years has increased more than 5-fold since 1950 (12 mg/capita/day) to 2012 (68 mg/capita/day).  Studies that used 50 mg or more of food dyes showed a … Continue reading

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Stevenson 2014: Research review: the role of diet in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder–an appraisal of the evidence on efficacy and recommendations on the design of future studies.

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Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 2014 May;55(5):416-27. The author compares 3 kinds of studies for treatment of ADHD – restricted elimination diets (RED), artificial food colour elimination (AFCE), and essential fatty acid (e.g. fish oil) supplements (SFFA).  He concludes … Continue reading

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Verlaet 2014: Nutrition, immunological mechanisms and dietary immunomodulation in ADHD.

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European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2014 Jul;23(7):519-29. Verlaet discusses the common causes of GI problems, asthma, eczema, ear infections, and ADHD – involving both genes, immunity, and inflammation.  An immune imbalance can be related to food provoking ADHD-like behavior.  Food … Continue reading

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Bell 2013: A comparison of daily consumption of artificial dye-containing foods by American children and adults

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Eastern Michigan University Master’s Theses. 2013. Bell counted number of exposures to food dye, not the actual amounts of dye,  consumed, and she found that children are exposed to food dyes at least twice as much as adults.  She also … Continue reading

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Ceyhan 2013: Effects of maternally exposed coloring food additives on receptor expressions related to learning and memory in rats.

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Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2013 Jun;56:145-8. In a study of rats, the authors found that exposing them to food dyes before birth changed the expression of certain receptors when they grew up.  The particular receptors (NMDAR and nAChR) are involved … Continue reading

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Doguc 2013: Effects of maternally exposed colouring food additives on cognitive performance in rats

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Toxicology and Industrial Health, 2013. Aug; 29(7): 616-23. In this study, Doguc gave pregnant rats the ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) amounts of the following food dyes by mouth, continuing to do so after the babies were born so that the … Continue reading

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Gray 2013: Salicylate elimination diets in children: Is food restriction supported by the evidence?

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The Medical Journal of Australia, 2013. Jun 17; 198(11): 600-2. Gray was treating patients who had tried the low-salicylate diet (called the FAILSAFE diet) used in Australia, which is more restrictive than the Feingold diet, eliminating both more of the … Continue reading

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Husarova 2013: Monosodium glutamate toxic effects and their implications for human intake: A review

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JMED Research, Vol. 2013 (2013) This is a review of the studies about MSG and its influence on different systems in humans.  Effects of injected MSG into rats included neuron damage, and prefrontal cerebral cortex changes, but such tests cannot … Continue reading

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Sonuga-Barke 2013: Nonpharmacological Interventions for ADHD: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Randomized Controlled Trials of Dietary and Psychological Treatments

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American Journal of Psychiatry, 2013.  March. 170(3): 275-89. This paper is a review of dietary and psychological treatments for ADHD. QUOTE (Conclusion):  “Free fatty acid supplementation and artificial food color exclusions appear to have beneficial effects on ADHD symptoms, although … Continue reading

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Stevens 2013: Mechanisms of behavioral, atopic, and other reactions to artificial food colors in children

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Nutrition Review, 2013 May;71(5):268-81. Stevens reviews the research on mechanisms by which food dyes and common foods may cause behavioral changes in children with and without ADHD.  The three potential mechanisms are toxicological, antinutritional, and hypersensitivity. Suggestions for future studies … Continue reading

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Artificial sweeteners are worse than we thought

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We already know too much sugar is bad for you ………but ARTIFICIAL sugar is worse. Click on the picture to see a short but important video from an article in TIME, May 20, 2016. Related studies:  (Get password) Azad 2016 … Continue reading

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Whiteley 2013: Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions

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Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2013 Jan 4;6:344. This is a review of evidence suggesting that a gluten-free diet, a casein-free diet (or both) are helpful for people on the autism spectrum. QUOTE:   “Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published … Continue reading

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Arnold 2012: Artificial food colors and attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms: Conclusions to dye for

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Neurotherapeutics. 2012 Jul;9(3):599-609. Arnold reviews the history of the effects of artificial food colors (AFC) on ADHD and the testimony to the 2011 FDA Food Advisory Committee. Arnold discusses possible biological mechanisms such as the effects of food dyes on … Continue reading

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Millichap 2012: The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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Pediatrics, 2012 Feb;129(2): 330-7. Millichap says his article is a comprehensive overview of the role of diet for treatment of children with ADHD “when pharmacotherapy has proven unsatisfactory or unacceptable.”  He promises to talk about new research. Unfortunately, he falls … Continue reading

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Saab 2012: The effect of diet supplementation on children with ADHD

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Lebanese American University, Masters Thesis 2012 In a project for her Masters Degree in Education, Linda Saab performed a case study on a 9 year old boy in Beirut who was diagnosed with ADHD.   Although he was observed for 5 … Continue reading

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Weiss 2012: Synthetic Food Colors and Neurobehavioral Hazards: The View from Environmental Health Research

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Environmental Health Perspectives, 2012 Jan;120(1):1-5. Dr. Weiss examines the basis of the FDA’s position on food dyes, the decision of the Food Advisory Committee, and the reasons that this is an environmental health issue He points out that they limited … Continue reading

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Hoekstra 2011: Is there potential for the treatment of children with ADHD beyond psychostimulants?

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European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2011. 20 (9), 431-2. Concerned about the enormous increase in use of psychostimulant drugs such as Ritalin, the authors of this editorial discuss the research supporting the use of other options.  In particular, they find … Continue reading

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Kamel 2011: The Potential Health Hazard of Tartrazine and Levels of Hyperactivity, Anxiety-Like Symptoms, Depression and Anti-social behaviour in Rats

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Journal of American Science, 2011; 7 (6): 1211-1218. This paper from Egypt describes a double-blind controlled study on rats to determine the behavioral effects of long-term exposure to various doses of tartrazine (E102, Yellow 5) provided in the drinking water … Continue reading

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Pelsser 2011: Effects of a restricted elimination diet on the behaviour of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (INCA study): a randomised controlled trial

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The Lancet, 2011. Feb 5;377 (9764): 494-503 This is a study of 100 children diagnosed with ADHD but not selected on any basis of expectation of a dietary effect.   The children were randomly assigned to an experimental diet group and … Continue reading

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Stevens 2011: Dietary sensitivities and ADHD symptoms: thirty-five years of research

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Clinical Pediatrics (Phila), 2011. Apr; 50(4): 279-93. In their review of the literature, Stevens et al conclude that the evidence indicates that a diet free of food dyes is appropriate for “children who have not responded satisfactorily to conventional treatment, … Continue reading

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Pelsser 2010: Effects of food on physical and sleep complaints in children with ADHD: a randomised controlled pilot study

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European Journal of Pediatrics, 2010 Sep;169(9): 1129-38. The 27 children in the Pelsser 2009 study were also evaluated for the effect of their diet condition on their sleep problems and other physical complaints.  Such complaints included headaches, bellyaches, unusual thirst, … Continue reading

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Stevenson 2010: The Role of Histamine Degradation Gene Polymorphisms in Moderating the Effects of Food Additives on Children’s ADHD Symptoms

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American Journal of Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;167(9): 1108-15 Stevenson analyzed the reactions of children in the McCann (2007) study to see why not all children react to additives in the same way.  He found that variation in several genes that control … Continue reading

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Pelsser 2009: A randomised controlled trial into the effects of food on ADHD

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European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2009 Jan;18(1):12-9. In a randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands, 27 children were assigned either to an elimination diet or to a “waiting list” control group for 5 weeks, beginning after a 2-week “baseline” diet … Continue reading

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Curtis 2008 Nutritional and environmental approaches to preventing and treating autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review

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Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2008.  Jan-Feb; 14(1): 79-85. This is a review of literature available in 2008. The authors say many of the studies link exposure to toxins such as mercury, lead, and pesticides, as well as prenatal … Continue reading

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Prescrire International 2009: Artificial food colouring and hyperactivity symptoms in children

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Prescrire International, 2009. Oct; 18(103): 215 (no author listed) In a health assessment of artificial food dyes, Prescrire International, a non-profit organization providing information and continuing education for healthcare professionals, considers the hypothesis that artificial food dyes worsen hyperactivity symptoms … Continue reading

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McCann 2007: Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

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Lancet, September 6, 2007 As a followup to the earlier Bateman (2004) study, the authors retested 153  toddlers as well as 144 elementary school (8/9 years old) children from the general population.   They were briefly put on a dye-free … Continue reading

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Husain 2006: Estimates of dietary exposure of children to artificial food colours in Kuwait

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Food Additives & Contaminants, 2006. Mar; 23(3): 245-51. Husain evaluated the amount of food dyes consumed by children in 58 schools in Kuwait, and found that the amounts of four of the colors were 4 to 8 times above the … Continue reading

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Inomata 2006: Multiple chemical sensitivities following intolerance to azo dye in sweets in a 5-year-old girl

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Allergology International, 2006. Jun; 55(2):203-5. This is a case report about a 5-year-old girl in Japan with multiple recurrent problems:  urticaria (hives), angioedema (swelling), headaches, dyspnea (shortness of breath), loss of consciousness, and abdominal pain.  Her symptoms were made worse … Continue reading

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Lau 2006: Synergistic Interactions Between Commonly Used Food Additives in a Developmental Neurotoxicity Test

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Toxicological Sciences. 2006 Mar; 90(1):178-87. This is one of the few studies examining and comparing the neurotoxic activity of food additives alone and in combination.   After determining how much of each additive reduces neurite development by 20%, Lau combined pairs … Continue reading

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