Scientific Reports, 2016 March 31;6:23819
The purpose of this study was to better understand how the widely used titanium dioxide may impact the environment. The researchers used swallowtail butterfly larvae which were hatched on plants growing in water containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP). The TiO2-NP was tracked as it was transferred from the water to the leaves to the larvae. From there, it was released into the wider environment via the larval excretions.