This is a review of 12 studies testing the effect of neonatal Vitamin A supplementation. Two possible theories are considered: (A) giving this vitamin to babies will prevent Vitamin A deficiency, and (B) giving this vitamin interacts with the DTP vaccine to increase mortality.
Theory A does not have strong support and would not explain the observed negative effects. Theory B accounts for most observations, apparently increasing deaths among female children, but has not been adequately tested.
The authors call for urgent further testing on the interaction of the DPT vaccine with Vitamin A.