Nutritional Neuroscience. 18(1); 12-21.
No adverse effects were seen on spatial working memory in the rats, but there was increased motility and anxiety, and decreased motivation with gender differences.
Gender differences suggest an effect on different hormones and/or neurotransmitter pathways.
The authors suggest that future studies should look at which specific dyes are responsible for the effect or whether it may be an interaction of two or more of them.